Braking Down The News

Which Senators And Representatives Vote In Favor Of Democracy?

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EMILY SCHERER / GETTY IMAGES

There is a growing strain of illiberalism both within the Republican Party and among Republican voters. But what does that illiberalism actually look like among elected members in Congress?

Quantifying politicians’ commitments to upholding democracy isn’t easy. Even defining “democracy” is complicatedscholars disagree on its exact definition — let alone trying to establish how closely politicians or parties adhere to democratic principles. There’s no ongoing survey of how strongly elected members of Congress believe in democratic principles, for instance, and it’s not clear what such a survey would even tell us, given that politicians (and their staffers) are often masters at spin. But just like aggregating politicians’ votes can tell us something about where they fall ideologically on economic or social policies, one thing we can do is look at how members of Congress vote when issues of democracy are brought to the floor. 

Of course, the catch here is that matters of democracy are rarely brought for a floor vote. “Most aspects of democracy are not up for debate in Congress in any given year,” said Michael Coppedge, a political scientist at the University of Notre Dame and one of the principal investigators at Varieties of Democracy. That’s an important caveat because the comprehensiveness of such a metric is limited by what Congress actually votes on. “There’s a lot that’s taken for granted that’s essential to what democracy is,” Coppedge said. “Instead, what we get our votes on [are] skirmishes on the periphery of what democracy means.”

One more complication is that there is no single agreed-upon list of what are (or aren’t) issues of democracy. Never mind what the more-democratic position is on each issue. 


Republicans can govern without winning a majority. That threatens our democracy.

Bearing all of that in mind, I’ve built two different metrics to help us understand a legislator’s stance on democracy. First is a minimalist definition of democracy, limited to basic requirements like free and, in theory, fair elections and other measures that help safeguard democracy. Second is a more expansive definition, which contains everything in the first category, but also includes bills that expand civil liberties and who has political power. That way, we can see where politicians converge on these two metrics — and where they differ.

First, the most bare-bones definition: “issues of electoral democracy.” Included in this definition are the most basic requirements of any functioning democracy, like free elections and freedom of the press. And while most of these issues typically don’t come up for congressional votes, some did this year — most notably, the counting of electoral votes from Pennsylvania and Arizona in the 2020 election, usually a ceremonial event that this year faced objections from members of Congress and coincided with the Jan. 6 assault on the Capitol. Four other types of bills fall into this category: a bill that would have set up an independent commission to investigate the Jan. 6 attack;1 when that failed to pass the Senate, a bill to create a select committee to investigate the Jan. 6 attack on the Capitol;2 a bill to increase the independence of government oversight of the executive branch;3 and the second bill to impeach former President Donald Trump,4 as he was charged with inciting “an insurrection against the government of the United States.” We realize that bill was more political than the others in this category — and we did debate whether to include it — but ultimately we decided that being too political wasn’t a good reason for exclusion, especially as the bill did deal with a core democratic principle: the peaceful transfer of power in America’s elections. (For what it’s worth, including this vote did not meaningfully change the results.)

An elephant and a donkey playing tennis on top of a leaning tower of books so the elephant has the higher ground in the illustration. The book titles read “Supreme Court,” “State Legislatures,” “Electoral College,” “Senate,” and “House of Representatives.”

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How politicians vote on these issues doesn’t just reflect the extent to which they back President Biden’s policies, which FiveThirtyEight tracks via its Biden Score metric. Though party lines are important here, this stripped-down metric of democracy still shows substantial variation — particularly among Republicans.5 On the other hand, Democrats are mostly clustered together in the upper-right hand corner.

Take Republican Sens. Susan Collins, Lisa Murkowski, Bill Cassidy, Mitt Romney and Ben Sasse. All five of them opposed the objections to counting electoral votes in both Pennsylvania and Arizona and supported the National Commission to investigate Jan. 6 — all three of the pro-democracy bills the Senate voted on in this category, even though they differ quite a bit in the extent to which they support Biden’s agenda. Similarly, in the House, Republican Reps. Brian Fitzpatrick, Tom Reed, John Katko, Adam Kinzinger and Liz Cheney all voted largely in favor of the pro-democracy measures in front of the House, even though Cheney rarely votes with Biden otherwise.

On the other end of the spectrum, you can see which representatives have voted against both Biden and the bare-bones pro-democracy measures Congress has taken up. For instance, Sens. Josh Hawley, Ted Cruz, Tommy Tuberville, Roger Marshall and Cindy Hyde-Smith have all voted against the democratic position every single time, even though Hyde-Smith tends to vote with Biden markedly more than the others.

A wide shot of the House of Representatives. A small number of the seats are filled.

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But this bare-bones metric is, of course, a fairly narrow definition of what it means to live in a democracy, which is why I created a second metric that also includes bills that try to create a more expansive and inclusive democracy. Using legislative scorecards from organizations like the American Civil Liberties Union, the government watchdog group Common Cause and the nonprofit research organization Vote Smart, I looked at all of the other bills that Congress brought to the floor this year that could also be considered key to a functioning democracy, in addition to the ones I’ve already mentioned.6 Bills that fall into this second category include:

Interestingly, the overall picture doesn’t change that much when you look at this fuller set of bills — although partisan differences are somewhat starker. While the bare-bones metric had a few Republicans on par with Democrats, this is no longer the case: There are no Republicans who are more supportive than Democrats of the more expansive definition of democracy.

In the Senate, it’s still Collins, Murkowski, Romney, Sasse, and Cassidy that lead Republicans on this metric — supporting almost all of the bills that fall in this second metric. The notable exception is the For the People Act, which no Senate Republican voted in favor of. Meanwhile, we saw more movement in the House, which voted on more “small-d” democratic bills and whose democracy score increasingly correlated with the Biden score. However, there were still some Republicans who supported a majority of these more expansive democratic positions, such as Fitzpatrick, Reed, Katko and Kinzinger, even though most of them vote with Biden less than half of the time. Cheney, however, fell on this more expansive metric in large part because she didn’t support legislation like a bill to prohibit discrimination based on sex, sexual orientation and gender identity, the For the People Act and the Washington, D.C. Admission Act.

And this brings us to an important point. As this more expansive definition of democracy shows, many of these issues have become polarized by party. That can make it hard to disentangle anti-democratic politics from partisan politics, according to Gretchen Helmke, a professor at the University of Rochester and one of the founders of Bright Line Watch, a group of political scientists that monitors democracy and threats to it. H.R. 1, the For The People Act, is an instructive example: Democrats have pushed this bill as small-d democratic because it makes it easier for people to exercise their right to vote, but they also first introduced it in 2019 as a statement of what the party stood for, when it had no chance of passing a Republican-controlled Senate and White House. So have Republicans voted against this bill as part of a stance against voting rights, or have they opposed it because they worry it delivers Democrats a sweeping legislative victory? There is no one answer here. In nearly every bill we looked at in the fuller metric, it was very hard to separate the politics from the policy.

Of course, this metric is not based on a random subset of possible issues. Democrats, who currently control both houses of Congress, might be strategic in what they choose to move forward, political scientist Jake Grumbach noted. Grumbach, a professor of political science at the University of Washington and the author of a recent paper tracking the state of liberal democracy at the state level, cautioned that Democrats might want to avoid difficult decisions for their members by introducing bills that could divide the party, leading them to keep bills off the floor on which the party doesn’t agree — a form of selection bias that plagues all studies of congressional voting behavior.8 We should therefore be careful about drawing any conclusions about the liberal and illiberal tendencies of the elected officials in our sample. But to see where your representative or senators fall, check out the full set of scores for all legislators on this metric in the table below:

Does your representative support democracy?

Pro-democracy percentage for each legislator in the House and Senate, based on six votes (“bare-bones” definition) or 18 votes (“more expansive” definition)

pro-democracy percentage
chamberlegislatorpartybare-bonesmore expansive
HouseAlma AdamsDem.100.0%100.0%
HousePete AguilarDem.100.0100.0
HouseColin AllredDem.100.0100.0
HouseJake AuchinclossDem.100.0100.0
HouseCindy AxneDem.100.0100.0
HouseNanette Diaz BarragánDem.100.0100.0
HouseKaren BassDem.100.0100.0
HouseJoyce BeattyDem.100.0100.0
HouseAmi BeraDem.100.0100.0
HouseDon BeyerDem.100.0100.0
HouseSanford D. Bishop Jr.Dem.100.0100.0
HouseEarl BlumenauerDem.100.0100.0
HouseLisa Blunt RochesterDem.100.0100.0
HouseSuzanne BonamiciDem.100.0100.0
HouseCarolyn BourdeauxDem.100.0100.0
HouseJamaal BowmanDem.100.0100.0
HouseBrendan BoyleDem.100.0100.0
HouseAnthony BrownDem.100.0100.0
HouseJulia BrownleyDem.100.0100.0
HouseCori BushDem.100.0100.0
HouseCheri BustosDem.100.0100.0
HouseG.K. ButterfieldDem.100.0100.0
HouseSalud CarbajalDem.100.0100.0
HouseTony CárdenasDem.100.0100.0
HouseAndré CarsonDem.100.0100.0
HouseTroy A. CarterDem.100.0100.0
HouseMatt CartwrightDem.100.0100.0
HouseEd CaseDem.100.0100.0
HouseSean CastenDem.100.0100.0
HouseJoaquin CastroDem.100.0100.0
HouseJudy ChuDem.100.0100.0
HouseDavid CicillineDem.100.0100.0
HouseKatherine ClarkDem.100.0100.0
HouseYvette D. ClarkeDem.100.0100.0
HouseEmanuel CleaverDem.100.0100.0
HouseJames E. ClyburnDem.100.0100.0
HouseSteve CohenDem.100.0100.0
HouseGerald E. ConnollyDem.100.0100.0
HouseJim CooperDem.100.0100.0
HouseJ. Luis CorreaDem.100.0100.0
HouseJoe CourtneyDem.100.0100.0
HouseAngie CraigDem.100.0100.0
HouseCharlie CristDem.100.0100.0
HouseJason CrowDem.100.0100.0
HouseHenry CuellarDem.100.0100.0
HouseSharice DavidsDem.100.0100.0
HouseDanny K. DavisDem.100.0100.0
HouseMadeleine DeanDem.100.0100.0
HousePeter DeFazioDem.100.0100.0
HouseDiana DeGetteDem.100.0100.0
HouseRosa L. DeLauroDem.100.0100.0
HouseSuzan DelBeneDem.100.0100.0
HouseAntonio DelgadoDem.100.0100.0
HouseVal DemingsDem.100.0100.0
HouseMark DeSaulnierDem.100.0100.0
HouseTed DeutchDem.100.0100.0
HouseDebbie DingellDem.100.0100.0
HouseMike DoyleDem.100.0100.0
HouseVeronica EscobarDem.100.0100.0
HouseAnna G. EshooDem.100.0100.0
HouseAdriano EspaillatDem.100.0100.0
HouseDwight EvansDem.100.0100.0
HouseLizzie Pannill FletcherDem.100.0100.0
HouseBill FosterDem.100.0100.0
HouseLois FrankelDem.100.0100.0
HouseRuben GallegoDem.100.0100.0
HouseJohn GaramendiDem.100.0100.0
HouseJesús “Chuy” GarcíaDem.100.0100.0
HouseSylvia R. GarciaDem.100.0100.0
HouseJimmy GomezDem.100.0100.0
HouseVicente GonzalezDem.100.0100.0
HouseJosh GottheimerDem.100.0100.0
HouseAl GreenDem.100.0100.0
HouseRaúl GrijalvaDem.100.0100.0
HouseJosh HarderDem.100.0100.0
HouseJahana HayesDem.100.0100.0
HouseBrian HigginsDem.100.0100.0
HouseJim HimesDem.100.0100.0
HouseSteven A. HorsfordDem.100.0100.0
HouseChrissy HoulahanDem.100.0100.0
HouseSteny H. HoyerDem.100.0100.0
HouseJared HuffmanDem.100.0100.0
HouseSheila Jackson LeeDem.100.0100.0
HouseSara JacobsDem.100.0100.0
HousePramila JayapalDem.100.0100.0
HouseHakeem JeffriesDem.100.0100.0
HouseEddie Bernice JohnsonDem.100.0100.0
HouseHank JohnsonDem.100.0100.0
HouseMondaire JonesDem.100.0100.0
HouseKaiali’i KaheleDem.100.0100.0
HouseMarcy KapturDem.100.0100.0
HouseWilliam KeatingDem.100.0100.0
HouseRo KhannaDem.100.0100.0
HouseDaniel KildeeDem.100.0100.0
HouseDerek KilmerDem.100.0100.0
HouseAndy KimDem.100.0100.0
HouseAnn KirkpatrickDem.100.0100.0
HouseRaja KrishnamoorthiDem.100.0100.0
HouseAnn KusterDem.100.0100.0
HouseConor LambDem.100.0100.0
HouseJim LangevinDem.100.0100.0
HouseRick LarsenDem.100.0100.0
HouseJohn B. LarsonDem.100.0100.0
HouseBrenda LawrenceDem.100.0100.0
HouseAl LawsonDem.100.0100.0
HouseBarbara LeeDem.100.0100.0
HouseSusie LeeDem.100.0100.0
HouseTeresa Leger FernandezDem.100.0100.0
HouseAndy LevinDem.100.0100.0
HouseMike LevinDem.100.0100.0
HouseTed LieuDem.100.0100.0
HouseZoe LofgrenDem.100.0100.0
HouseAlan LowenthalDem.100.0100.0
HouseElaine LuriaDem.100.0100.0
HouseStephen F. LynchDem.100.0100.0
HouseTom MalinowskiDem.100.0100.0
HouseCarolyn MaloneyDem.100.0100.0
HouseKathy E. ManningDem.100.0100.0
HouseDoris O. MatsuiDem.100.0100.0
HouseLucy McBathDem.100.0100.0
HouseBetty McCollumDem.100.0100.0
HouseA. Donald McEachinDem.100.0100.0
HouseJames McGovernDem.100.0100.0
HouseJerry McNerneyDem.100.0100.0
HouseGregory W. MeeksDem.100.0100.0
HouseGrace MengDem.100.0100.0
HouseKweisi MfumeDem.100.0100.0
HouseGwen MooreDem.100.0100.0
HouseJoseph D. MorelleDem.100.0100.0
HouseSeth MoultonDem.100.0100.0
HouseFrank J. MrvanDem.100.0100.0
HouseJerrold NadlerDem.100.0100.0
HouseGrace NapolitanoDem.100.0100.0
HouseRichard E. NealDem.100.0100.0
HouseJoe NeguseDem.100.0100.0
HouseMarie NewmanDem.100.0100.0
HouseDonald NorcrossDem.100.0100.0
HouseTom O’HalleranDem.100.0100.0
HouseIlhan OmarDem.100.0100.0
HouseFrank Pallone Jr.Dem.100.0100.0
HouseJimmy PanettaDem.100.0100.0
HouseChris PappasDem.100.0100.0
HouseBill Pascrell Jr.Dem.100.0100.0
HouseDonald Payne Jr.Dem.100.0100.0
HouseNancy PelosiDem.100.0100.0
HouseEd PerlmutterDem.100.0100.0
HouseScott PetersDem.100.0100.0
HouseDean PhillipsDem.100.0100.0
HouseChellie PingreeDem.100.0100.0
HouseMark PocanDem.100.0100.0
HouseKatie PorterDem.100.0100.0
HouseAyanna PressleyDem.100.0100.0
HouseDavid PriceDem.100.0100.0
HouseMike QuigleyDem.100.0100.0
HouseJamie RaskinDem.100.0100.0
HouseKathleen RiceDem.100.0100.0
HouseDeborah K. RossDem.100.0100.0
HouseLucille Roybal-AllardDem.100.0100.0
HouseRaul RuizDem.100.0100.0
HouseC.A. Dutch RuppersbergerDem.100.0100.0
HouseBobby L. RushDem.100.0100.0
HouseTim RyanDem.100.0100.0
HouseJohn P. SarbanesDem.100.0100.0
HouseMary Gay ScanlonDem.100.0100.0
HouseJan SchakowskyDem.100.0100.0
HouseAdam SchiffDem.100.0100.0
HouseBradley SchneiderDem.100.0100.0
HouseKurt SchraderDem.100.0100.0
HouseKim SchrierDem.100.0100.0
HouseRobert C. ScottDem.100.0100.0
HouseTerri A. SewellDem.100.0100.0
HouseBrad ShermanDem.100.0100.0
HouseMikie SherrillDem.100.0100.0
HouseAlbio SiresDem.100.0100.0
HouseElissa SlotkinDem.100.0100.0
HouseAdam SmithDem.100.0100.0
HouseDarren SotoDem.100.0100.0
HouseAbigail SpanbergerDem.100.0100.0
HouseJackie SpeierDem.100.0100.0
HouseMelanie A. StansburyDem.100.0100.0
HouseGreg StantonDem.100.0100.0
HouseHaley StevensDem.100.0100.0
HouseMarilyn StricklandDem.100.0100.0
HouseThomas SuozziDem.100.0100.0
HouseEric SwalwellDem.100.0100.0
HouseMike ThompsonDem.100.0100.0
HouseDina TitusDem.100.0100.0
HousePaul D. TonkoDem.100.0100.0
HouseNorma TorresDem.100.0100.0
HouseRitchie TorresDem.100.0100.0
HouseLori TrahanDem.100.0100.0
HouseLauren UnderwoodDem.100.0100.0
HouseJuan VargasDem.100.0100.0
HouseMarc VeaseyDem.100.0100.0
HouseFilemon VelaDem.100.0100.0
HouseNydia M. VelázquezDem.100.0100.0
HouseDebbie Wasserman SchultzDem.100.0100.0
HouseMaxine WatersDem.100.0100.0
HouseBonnie Watson ColemanDem.100.0100.0
HousePeter WelchDem.100.0100.0
HouseJennifer WextonDem.100.0100.0
HouseSusan WildDem.100.0100.0
HouseNikema WilliamsDem.100.0100.0
HouseFrederica WilsonDem.100.0100.0
HouseJohn A. YarmuthDem.100.0100.0
SenateTammy BaldwinDem.100.0100.0
SenateMichael F. BennetDem.100.0100.0
SenateRichard BlumenthalDem.100.0100.0
SenateCory A. BookerDem.100.0100.0
SenateSherrod BrownDem.100.0100.0
SenateMaria CantwellDem.100.0100.0
SenateBenjamin L. CardinDem.100.0100.0
SenateThomas R. CarperDem.100.0100.0
SenateRobert P. Casey Jr.Dem.100.0100.0
SenateChristopher A. CoonsDem.100.0100.0
SenateCatherine Cortez MastoDem.100.0100.0
SenateTammy DuckworthDem.100.0100.0
SenateRichard J. DurbinDem.100.0100.0
SenateDianne FeinsteinDem.100.0100.0
SenateKirsten E. GillibrandDem.100.0100.0
SenateMargaret Wood HassanDem.100.0100.0
SenateMartin HeinrichDem.100.0100.0
SenateJohn W. HickenlooperDem.100.0100.0
SenateMazie K. HironoDem.100.0100.0
SenateTim KaineDem.100.0100.0
SenateMark KellyDem.100.0100.0
SenateAngus S. King Jr.Dem.100.0100.0
SenatePatrick J. LeahyDem.100.0100.0
SenateBen R. LujánDem.100.0100.0
SenateJoe ManchinDem.100.0100.0
SenateEdward J. MarkeyDem.100.0100.0
SenateRobert MenendezDem.100.0100.0
SenateJeff MerkleyDem.100.0100.0
SenateChristopher MurphyDem.100.0100.0
SenateJon OssoffDem.100.0100.0
SenateAlex PadillaDem.100.0100.0
SenateGary C. PetersDem.100.0100.0
SenateJack ReedDem.100.0100.0
SenateJacky RosenDem.100.0100.0
SenateBernie SandersDem.100.0100.0
SenateBrian SchatzDem.100.0100.0
SenateCharles E. SchumerDem.100.0100.0
SenateJeanne ShaheenDem.100.0100.0
SenateDebbie StabenowDem.100.0100.0
SenateJon TesterDem.100.0100.0
SenateChris Van HollenDem.100.0100.0
SenateMark R. WarnerDem.100.0100.0
SenateRaphael G. WarnockDem.100.0100.0
SenateElizabeth WarrenDem.100.0100.0
SenateSheldon WhitehouseDem.100.0100.0
SenateRon WydenDem.100.0100.0
HouseKathy CastorDem.100.097.4
HouseJim CostaDem.100.097.4
HouseLloyd DoggettDem.91.797.4
HouseRobin KellyDem.91.797.4
HouseSean Patrick MaloneyDem.100.097.4
HouseStephanie MurphyDem.100.097.4
HouseAlexandria Ocasio-CortezDem.100.097.4
HouseLinda SánchezDem.100.097.4
HouseDavid ScottDem.91.797.4
HouseMark TakanoDem.100.097.4
HouseDavid TroneDem.91.797.4
HouseRon KindDem.100.094.7
HouseBennie G. ThompsonDem.100.094.7
SenateAmy KlobucharDem.100.092.9
SenatePatty MurrayDem.87.592.9
SenateKyrsten SinemaDem.87.592.9
SenateTina SmithDem.100.092.9
HouseRashida TlaibDem.83.392.1
HouseJared GoldenDem.91.786.8
SenateBill CassidyRep.100.071.4
SenateSusan CollinsRep.100.071.4
SenateLisa MurkowskiRep.100.071.4
SenateMitt RomneyRep.100.071.4
SenateBen SasseRep.100.071.4
HouseBrian FitzpatrickRep.66.768.4
SenateRichard BurrRep.87.564.3
SenatePatrick J. ToomeyRep.87.564.3
HouseJohn KatkoRep.83.357.9
HouseAdam KinzingerRep.83.357.9
HouseTom ReedRep.66.757.9
SenateRob PortmanRep.75.057.1
SenateMike RoundsRep.62.557.1
HouseFred UptonRep.66.752.6
SenateRoy BluntRep.62.550.0
SenateMike BraunRep.62.550.0
SenateJames M. InhofeRep.62.550.0
SenateJames E. RischRep.62.550.0
SenateRichard C. ShelbyRep.62.550.0
HouseDon BaconRep.50.047.4
HouseJaime Herrera BeutlerRep.66.747.4
HouseChris SmithRep.50.047.4
SenateJohn BarrassoRep.50.042.9
SenateMarsha BlackburnRep.62.542.9
SenateJohn BoozmanRep.50.042.9
SenateShelley Moore CapitoRep.50.042.9
SenateJohn CornynRep.50.042.9
SenateTom CottonRep.50.042.9
SenateKevin CramerRep.50.042.9
SenateMike CrapoRep.50.042.9
SenateSteve DainesRep.50.042.9
SenateJoni ErnstRep.50.042.9
SenateDeb FischerRep.50.042.9
SenateLindsey GrahamRep.50.042.9
SenateChuck GrassleyRep.50.042.9
SenateBill HagertyRep.50.042.9
SenateJohn HoevenRep.50.042.9
SenateRon JohnsonRep.50.042.9
SenateJames LankfordRep.50.042.9
SenateMitch McConnellRep.50.042.9
SenateJerry MoranRep.50.042.9
SenateMarco RubioRep.50.042.9
SenateTim ScottRep.50.042.9
SenateDan SullivanRep.50.042.9
SenateJohn ThuneRep.50.042.9
SenateThom TillisRep.50.042.9
SenateRoger F. WickerRep.50.042.9
SenateTodd YoungRep.50.042.9
HouseLiz CheneyRep.83.342.1
HouseJeff FortenberryRep.50.042.1
HouseAndrew R. GarbarinoRep.50.042.1
HouseTony GonzalesRep.50.042.1
HouseAnthony GonzalezRep.66.742.1
HouseTrey HollingsworthRep.50.042.1
HousePeter MeijerRep.66.742.1
HouseDan NewhouseRep.66.742.1
HouseDavid G. ValadaoRep.50.041.2
HouseDavid JoyceRep.41.739.5
HouseDon YoungRep.33.339.5
HouseTroy BaldersonRep.33.336.8
HouseJohn R. CurtisRep.50.036.8
HouseRodney DavisRep.50.036.8
HouseCarlos A. GimenezRep.16.736.8
HouseFrench HillRep.50.036.8
HouseAshley HinsonRep.33.336.8
HouseMichael T. McCaulRep.33.336.8
HouseBlake D. MooreRep.50.036.8
HousePete StauberRep.33.336.8
HouseAnn WagnerRep.33.336.8
SenateMike LeeRep.50.035.7
SenateRand PaulRep.50.035.7
HouseMaría Elvira SalazarRep.25.035.3
HouseYoung KimRep.25.034.2
HouseMike SimpsonRep.50.034.2
HouseMark AmodeiRep.33.331.6
HouseCliff BentzRep.33.331.6
HouseGus M. BilirakisRep.16.731.6
HouseMario Diaz-BalartRep.0.031.6
HouseTom EmmerRep.33.331.6
HouseMike GallagherRep.41.731.6
HouseBrett S. GuthrieRep.33.331.6
HouseBill HuizengaRep.33.331.6
HouseDusty JohnsonRep.50.031.6
HouseRobert E. LattaRep.33.331.6
HouseDavid McKinleyRep.50.031.6
HouseMariannette Miller-MeeksRep.50.031.6
HouseJohn MoolenaarRep.33.331.6
HouseVictoria SpartzRep.33.331.6
HouseBryan SteilRep.33.331.6
HouseVan TaylorRep.50.031.6
HouseMichael TurnerRep.33.331.6
HouseBrad WenstrupRep.33.331.6
HouseSteve WomackRep.50.031.6
HouseVern BuchananRep.33.328.9
HouseDan CrenshawRep.33.328.9
HouseGregory F. MurphyRep.25.028.9
SenateJohn KennedyRep.25.028.6
SenateCynthia M. LummisRep.25.028.6
SenateRick ScottRep.25.028.6
HouseLarry BucshonRep.33.326.3
HouseSteve ChabotRep.16.726.3
HouseJames ComerRep.33.326.3
HouseRandy FeenstraRep.33.326.3
HouseA. Drew FergusonRep.33.326.3
HouseGlenn GrothmanRep.33.326.3
HouseChris JacobsRep.16.726.3
HouseNicole MalliotakisRep.0.026.3
HouseCathy McMorris RodgersRep.33.326.3
HouseDavid SchweikertRep.16.726.3
HouseChris StewartRep.16.726.3
HouseJeff Van DrewRep.0.026.3
HouseMichael WaltzRep.33.326.3
HouseKay GrangerRep.25.023.7
HouseDarrell E. IssaRep.16.723.7
HouseRoger WilliamsRep.16.723.7
HouseKelly ArmstrongRep.33.321.1
HouseAndy BarrRep.33.321.1
HouseStephanie I. BiceRep.16.721.1
HouseMike BostRep.0.021.1
HouseKevin BradyRep.16.721.1
HouseMichael BurgessRep.0.021.1
HouseKen CalvertRep.0.021.1
HouseRuss FulcherRep.16.721.1
HouseMike GarciaRep.0.021.1
HouseGarret GravesRep.16.721.1
HouseRichard HudsonRep.0.021.1
HouseBill JohnsonRep.0.021.1
HouseDavid KustoffRep.16.721.1
HouseDarin LaHoodRep.33.321.1
HouseNancy MaceRep.33.321.1
HouseKevin McCarthyRep.0.021.1
HouseBurgess OwensRep.16.721.1
HouseSteve ScaliseRep.0.021.1
HouseAustin ScottRep.33.321.1
HouseLloyd SmuckerRep.16.721.1
HouseMichelle SteelRep.16.721.1
HouseElise StefanikRep.16.721.1
HouseDaniel WebsterRep.16.721.1
HouseBruce WestermanRep.33.321.1
HouseJoe WilsonRep.0.021.1
HouseRobert J. WittmanRep.16.721.1
HouseClaudia TenneyRep.0.018.8
HouseKen BuckRep.25.018.4
HouseBob GibbsRep.0.018.4
HousePatrick T. McHenryRep.33.318.4
HouseDan MeuserRep.16.718.4
HouseGreg PenceRep.16.718.4
HouseChip RoyRep.50.018.4
HouseGlenn W. ThompsonRep.16.718.4
HouseTim WalbergRep.8.318.4
HouseJulia LetlowRep.0.018.2
HouseJack BergmanRep.0.015.8
HouseBuddy CarterRep.16.715.8
HouseMichelle FischbachRep.0.015.8
HouseChuck FleischmannRep.0.015.8
HouseVirginia FoxxRep.16.715.8
HouseLouie GohmertRep.16.715.8
HouseMichael GuestRep.25.015.8
HouseJim HagedornRep.0.015.8
HouseFred KellerRep.16.715.8
HouseMike KellyRep.0.015.8
HouseDebbie LeskoRep.0.015.8
HouseBilly LongRep.8.315.8
HouseFrank LucasRep.0.015.8
HouseBrian MastRep.0.015.8
HouseMary E. MillerRep.16.715.8
HouseAlex MooneyRep.16.715.8
HouseMarkwayne MullinRep.0.015.8
HouseDevin NunesRep.0.015.8
HouseJay ObernolteRep.0.015.8
HouseGuy ReschenthalerRep.0.015.8
HouseTom RiceRep.33.315.8
HouseHarold RogersRep.0.015.8
HouseAdrian SmithRep.0.015.8
HouseJason SmithRep.0.015.8
HouseBeth Van DuyneRep.16.715.8
HouseJackie WalorskiRep.0.015.8
HouseLee ZeldinRep.0.015.8
SenateTed CruzRep.0.014.3
SenateCindy Hyde-SmithRep.0.014.3
SenateRoger MarshallRep.0.014.3
SenateTommy TubervilleRep.0.014.3
HouseJodey ArringtonRep.16.713.2
HouseJim BanksRep.16.713.2
HouseMichael CloudRep.16.713.2
HouseRon EstesRep.0.013.2
HouseBob GoodRep.16.713.2
HouseMorgan GriffithRep.0.013.2
HouseVicky HartzlerRep.0.013.2
HouseYvette HerrellRep.16.713.2
HouseClay HigginsRep.16.713.2
HouseMike JohnsonRep.16.713.2
HouseJake LaTurnerRep.8.313.2
HouseAugust PflugerRep.16.713.2
HouseJohn RoseRep.16.713.2
HouseThomas P. TiffanyRep.16.713.2
HouseRandy WeberRep.16.713.2
HouseJim BairdRep.0.010.5
HouseJohn CarterRep.0.010.5
HouseBen ClineRep.0.010.5
HouseTom ColeRep.0.010.5
HouseRick CrawfordRep.0.010.5
HouseWarren DavidsonRep.0.010.5
HouseNeal DunnRep.0.010.5
HousePat FallonRep.0.010.5
HouseScott FitzgeraldRep.0.010.5
HouseC. Scott FranklinRep.0.010.5
HouseMatt GaetzRep.0.010.5
HouseLance GoodenRep.0.010.5
HouseSam GravesRep.0.010.5
HouseJody HiceRep.8.310.5
HouseJohn JoyceRep.0.010.5
HouseDoug LambornRep.0.010.5
HouseBlaine LuetkemeyerRep.0.010.5
HouseThomas MassieRep.33.310.5
HouseLisa C. McClainRep.0.010.5
HouseTom McClintockRep.33.310.5
HouseCarol MillerRep.0.010.5
HouseBarry MooreRep.8.310.5
HouseTroy E. NehlsRep.0.010.5
HouseBill PoseyRep.0.010.5
HouseJohn RutherfordRep.0.010.5
HousePete SessionsRep.0.010.5
HouseWilliam TimmonsRep.0.010.5
HouseBrian BabinRep.0.07.9
HouseLauren BoebertRep.0.07.9
HouseTim BurchettRep.0.07.9
HouseScott DesJarlaisRep.8.37.9
HouseAndy HarrisRep.8.37.9
HouseRonny JacksonRep.16.77.9
HouseTrent KellyRep.0.07.9
HouseRobert B. AderholtRep.0.05.3
HouseRick AllenRep.0.05.3
HouseDan BishopRep.0.05.3
HouseTed BuddRep.0.05.3
HouseKat CammackRep.0.05.3
HouseJerry L. CarlRep.0.05.3
HouseMadison CawthornRep.0.05.3
HouseAndrew S. ClydeRep.0.05.3
HouseByron DonaldsRep.0.05.3
HouseJeff DuncanRep.0.05.3
HouseMark E. GreenRep.0.05.3
HouseMarjorie Taylor GreeneRep.0.05.3
HouseDiana HarshbargerRep.0.05.3
HouseKevin HernRep.0.05.3
HouseJim JordanRep.0.05.3
HouseDoug LaMalfaRep.0.05.3
HouseBarry LoudermilkRep.0.05.3
HouseTracey MannRep.0.05.3
HouseSteven PalazzoRep.0.05.3
HouseGary PalmerRep.0.05.3
HouseScott PerryRep.0.05.3
HouseMike RogersRep.0.05.3
HouseDavid RouzerRep.0.05.3
HouseGreg SteubeRep.0.05.3
HouseAndy BiggsRep.0.02.6
HouseMo BrooksRep.0.00.0
HousePaul A. GosarRep.0.00.0
HouseRalph NormanRep.0.00.0
HouseMatthew M. RosendaleRep.0.00.0
SenateJosh HawleyRep.0.00.0

Legislators of the 117th Congress who died, left or joined after July 1st are not included. Sens. Bernie Sanders and Angus King are independents who caucus with the Democrats.

The “bare-bones” definition includes voting on the counting of electoral votes in Pennsylvania and Arizona; a bill that would have set up an independent commission to investigate the Jan. 6 attack (H.R. 3233); a bill to create a select committee to investigate the Jan. 6 attack (House Res. 503); a bill to increase the independence of government oversight of the executive branch (H.R. 2662); and the second bill to impeach former President Donald Trump (House Res. 24).

The “more expansive” definition includes all “bare-bones” votes plus bills aimed at expanding civil liberties, bills aimed at expanding political power and voting rights and bills that address the legacy of slavery in the U.S.

Sources: VOTEVIEW, ACLU, COMMON CAUSE, VOTESMART

At this point, the core of democracy in the U.S. is not up for debate. “We’re fighting battles today over certain aspects of the democratic process, but not the core of it, for the most part,” Coppedge told me. But the fact that questions of democracy have become so clearly partisan is not good for the future of democracy. And given just how politically divided that fight has already become, it’s more important than ever to track how Congress votes on the matters of democracy that do make it to the floor.

Graphics by Ryan Best and Anna Wiederkehr.


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